The Comprehensive Guide to Ruby Stones

5 min read


Rubies, known for their striking red color and captivating allure, are among the most sought-after gemstones in the world. These precious stones have adorned royalty and symbolized wealth and passion for centuries. This comprehensive guide explores the world of ruby stones, detailing their history, characteristics, and significance.

History of Ruby Stones

Ancient Origins

Ruby stone have a rich history that dates back thousands of years. The first rubies were discovered in Myanmar (Burma) around 600 AD. These early discoveries led to the widespread mining and trading of rubies throughout Asia and Europe.

Rubies in Different Cultures

Rubies have held a place of significance in various cultures. In ancient India, they were referred to as "Ratnaraj" or "King of Precious Stones." In medieval Europe, they were believed to bring good fortune, health, and wisdom to their owners.

Modern History

In the 19th and 20th centuries, ruby mining expanded globally. New deposits were found in countries like Thailand, Vietnam, and Madagascar, making rubies more accessible to jewelers and collectors worldwide.

Characteristics of Ruby Stones

Chemical Composition

Rubies are a variety of the mineral corundum, composed primarily of aluminum oxide with chromium impurities, which give them their distinctive red color.

Physical Properties

  • Hardness: Rubies score 9 on the Mohs scale, making them one of the hardest gemstones, second only to diamonds.
  • Color: The most prized rubies display a vibrant red to purplish-red hue, often referred to as "pigeon blood" red.
  • Clarity: High-quality rubies are typically free of significant inclusions, although some inclusions can enhance the stone's character.

Synthetic Rubies

Synthetic rubies, created through processes like the Verneuil method, have the same chemical composition as natural rubies but are produced in laboratories. These stones offer a more affordable option for consumers.

Types and Classifications of Ruby Stones

By Origin

  • Burmese Rubies: Known for their deep red color and superior quality.
  • Thai Rubies: Often darker with a brownish hue.
  • African Rubies: Typically lighter red with good clarity.

By Treatment

  • Untreated Rubies: Naturally occurring with no enhancements.
  • Heat-Treated Rubies: Subjected to high temperatures to improve color and clarity.
  • Flux-Healed Rubies: Treated to fill fractures and enhance appearance.

Symptoms and Signs of Ruby Stones

Identifying a Genuine Ruby

  • Color: Genuine rubies have a vivid red color with slight variations.
  • Inclusions: Natural rubies often have small inclusions or imperfections.
  • Fluorescence: Many rubies exhibit a red fluorescence under ultraviolet light.

Common Impostors

  • Red Spinel: Often mistaken for ruby due to its similar color.
  • Garnet: Another red gemstone that can be confused with ruby.
  • Glass: Sometimes used to imitate rubies in lower-quality jewelry.

Causes and Risk Factors

Geological Formation

Rubies form under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions in metamorphic rocks and are commonly found in marble and basalt.

Mining Locations

Key mining locations include Myanmar, Thailand, Sri Lanka, Madagascar, and Mozambique. The geological conditions in these regions favor the formation of high-quality rubies.

Diagnosis and Tests

Visual Inspection

Experts use magnification to inspect rubies for color consistency and inclusions, which help determine authenticity and quality.

Advanced Testing

  • Spectroscopy: Identifies the gemstone's chemical composition.
  • X-ray Diffraction: Analyzes the crystal structure to differentiate between natural and synthetic rubies.
  • Refractive Index: Measures how light bends as it passes through the ruby, helping confirm its identity.

Treatment Options

Heat Treatment

Heat treatment enhances the color and clarity of rubies. This common practice is accepted in the gemstone industry as it significantly improves the stone's appearance.

Fracture Filling

This involves filling surface-reaching fractures with a glass-like substance to enhance clarity. However, this treatment can affect the stone's durability.

Recutting and Polishing

To improve a ruby's appearance, it can be recut and polished, which may increase its value and market appeal.

Preventive Measures

Proper Care and Maintenance

  • Cleaning: Use a soft brush and mild soap to clean rubies. Avoid harsh chemicals and ultrasonic cleaners.
  • Storage: Store rubies separately from other gemstones to prevent scratches.

Protective Settings

Jewelry settings that protect the ruby, such as bezel settings, can prevent damage and enhance the stone's longevity.

Personal Stories or Case Studies

Historical Figures and Their Rubies

  • Queen Elizabeth II: Her Burmese Ruby Tiara, set with 96 rubies, is one of her most treasured pieces.
  • Elizabeth Taylor: Owned a famous ruby and diamond necklace gifted by her husband, Richard Burton.

Modern Collectors

Ruby enthusiasts and collectors often share their stories of finding rare and unique rubies, highlighting the stone's enduring appeal.

Expert Insights

Gemologists’ Perspectives

Renowned gemologists provide insights into the qualities that make a ruby valuable and the latest trends in ruby treatments and sourcing.

Jewelers’ Recommendations

Jewelers offer advice on selecting the perfect ruby, considering factors like color, cut, and carat weight.


Rubies remain one of the most captivating gemstones, prized for their beauty and historical significance. Whether you're a collector, a jeweler, or simply an admirer, understanding the intricacies of ruby stones can enhance your appreciation and guide you in making informed decisions about these precious gems.

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