Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU), also known as a synchrophasor, is a critical piece of equipment for electric grid operators to better understand what's going on throughout the huge grid. A phasor is a quantity that can be measured by a PMU. For a current or AC voltage at a certain point on the power line, the phasor gives the magnitude and phase angle. This data may even be utilized to calculate the frequency of a signal and to evaluate the health of a system.
Conventional SCADA systems typically offer just one calculator every two to four seconds, however, PMUs may deliver up to 60 measurements per second. Complete PMU data is recorded with time using Global Positioning System (GPS), giving wide voltage PMU a significant edge over more conventional data collection methods. By employing the same precise way of linking data with time, data gathered across a grid is synchronized. As a result, PMUs are also known as synchrophasors.
Real-time phasor information (including magnitude and phase angle) is provided by PMU technology.
Using global reference time to refer to phase angle while taking a large area snapshot of the power system is beneficial. Using this technology effectively can help prevent blackouts and better understand the real-time behavior of the power system.
Wide Voltage PMU Systems
There are several PMUs installed across the energy grid at key areas in order to provide a broad area monitoring system network. A central location Phasor data concentrator receives information from wide voltage PMUs and feeds it onto the supervisory control and data collection system after synchronizing the same.
In order for a WAMS network to be complete, all phasor data samples at each PMU must be time-stamped and sent in real-time. Time synchronization between distinct PMU's is provided through GPS placed at the PMU site. The data collection module, communication module, and GPS receiver are the three primary components of a PMU.
With PMUs, you can get a clear picture of the quality of power over a large area. An analysis of the data shows whether or not the current, voltage, and frequency are within the limitations set. The ability is put to use in a variety of ways:
- To enhance the precision with which system circumstances are modeled
- Predicting and detecting grid instability and stress.
- After a commotion, to aid in the investigation of what caused it
- To discover wasteful practices.
- Predicting and preventing congestion
Several PMUs have been placed in power grids all around the globe in the last few years. Some distribution grids may also employ them. Wide voltage PMUs, when combined with advanced controllers, allow SCADA systems to be replaced by one that autonomously makes choices and delivers control signals.
It is hoped that these features would enable more efficient and strong incorporation of distributed energy resources (DERs), renewables, and microgrids. PMUs are helping to improve the reliability, resilience, and sustainability of our grid.
However, there might be some challenges in the implementation of PMU
Challenges in the Implementation
- Choosing an appropriate site for the installation of a PMU
- Utilization of SCADA and synchrophasor technology
- Delays in communication
- Detection of low-frequency oscillation
- Prediction is complicated by distorted power supply waveforms.
- Requires a lot of processing power
- Developing post-facto analytical tools
Wide voltage PMU offers new approaches to age-old utility issues. As a result, power system networks are better protected and more effectively controlled by this technology.
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