Research on Key Technologies of Casting Water Meter
The aim of this research was to identify the key technologies that can be used in a Casting Water Meter. These technologies are based on a combination of electronic components and optical sensors.
A number of benefits can be derived from these technologies. These benefits include cost saving, meter reading accuracy, and enabling monthly billing.
A microprocessor is a chip that has a set of instructions that can be used to perform specific and repetitive tasks. They are a common component found in all desktop and laptop computers, as well as in many electronic devices copper gravity casting manufacturer such as cell phones, tablets, and cars.
They are incredibly versatile. The same microprocessor can be used in a number of different applications as long as the programming is changed.
Basically, they contain an ALU (Additional Logic Unit), a control unit, and registers that store data or instructions. They can process a large amount of data in a very short period of time.
To control the rate at which the processor executes these instructions, it uses a clock signal. This clock signal synchronizes all the components in the microprocessor. It can be measured in hertz, megahertz (MHz), or gigahertz (GHz).
A microprocessor also contains a cache memory which is designed to access data more quickly than the other memory units within the chip. This can increase the overall speed of the microprocessor.
Another important feature of microprocessors is their word length which is the number of bits a microprocessor can process at a time. It can be as low as 4 bits, and can go up to 64 bits depending on the type of microprocessor.
Finally, a microprocessor can have a bus that transports data from one component to the next. This is an essential feature of any microprocessor because it enables a number of different components to communicate with each other. This is critical for making microprocessors incredibly flexible and efficient. It is also critical for ensuring the longevity of these microprocessors. Ultimately, it allows engineers to pack a lot of technology into a small space.
The Microcontroller is a key technology in the design and implementation of smart water meters. It allows the control of the various sensors and their outputs, such as the flow sensor. It also enables the communication between the sensors and the metering gateway. It can also be used to send the pre-processed metering data over the cellular or WiFi network, which eliminates the need to process them in the gateway device.
In the past, most water meters were fully mechanical, based on velocity or displacement measurements. These include single jet, multiple jet, Woltmann and oscillating piston meters.
During the past two decades, electronic circuit components have been gradually integrated into these meters to achieve automatic functionalities, such as Automatic Meter Reading (AMR). These are commonly referred to as electromechanical water meters.
A common problem with existing smart water meter designs is the inability to generate power to operate the electronic circuits, thereby limiting their applications to relatively small pipes that have access to electricity. Several approaches have been proposed to solve this issue, such as adopting a fixed wired power supply or a replaceable battery with customerized brass die casting.
However, these solutions present their own drawbacks. For example, they require a significant increase in the frequency of data collection, which can lead to an excessive battery consumption. This can, in turn, significantly reduce the life span of the smart meter, since the battery needs to be recharged every time the metering data are sent.
Fortunately, there are a large number of inexpensive and high quality open wireless communication technologies that have emerged over the past few years. These technologies, combined with a plethora of COTS open source software components, could serve as the basis for a highly interoperable and efficient smart water metering solution, capable of reading and transmitting data from a variety of types of smart water meters.
3. Optical Sensor
The Optical Sensor is a technology that allows you to monitor a variety of physical and chemical measurands. Optical sensors can be used to measure temperature, flow rate, pressure, level of liquid, vibrations, rotation, acceleration and much more.
Optical sensors are often used in conjunction with other sensor technologies, including those based on purely electronic means. They are small and lightweight, are resistant to high temperatures and chemically reactive environments, and can be multiplexed or distributed to provide measurements at a large number of points.
They are also more sensitive than many other types of sensors, allowing them to be more accurate. They are able to detect changes in one or more beams of light that can be triggered by alterations to the intensity of the light or its phase, depending on the type of sensor.
In the case of a single point method, a phase change occurs at the point of interest, but in the case of a distribution concept, a series of sensors or fiber-optic array are responsible for responding to the change. A sensor can be either extrinsic, where it is the change in light beam that activates it, or intrinsic, where the changes are derived from inside the fiber itself or are transmitted through it to the receiver.
Optical sensors are used in a wide range of applications, ranging from imaging and remote sensing satellites to metrology, medical devices, and quality and process control. They can be based on different measurement principles and can be very sensitive to various physical quantities such as forces, displacements and tilts (= rotational position changes), strain, acceleration, magnetic fields and electrical signals. They can be fabricated with bulk optics or fiber optics.
4. Optical Transmitter
Optical transmitter is one of the key technologies that are used in the Casting Water Meter. It is a device which converts input signal (electric signals) into light signals in optical transmission. The transmitter consists of a light source, a modulator and a driver circuit.
Various sources can be used for optical transmitter like LED, laser, VCSEL etc. The sources have to satisfy some criteria’s like correct wavelength, modulation and able to transmit data fastly.
Guided-wave or free-space are the most commonly used optical transmission systems. In guided-wave system the light rays are trapped inside fiber optic cable so that it can be transmitted over a long distance. The simplest optical transmitter is one that sends binary data, ones and zeros encoded as the presence or absence of light.
Some dispersion is induced by the transmission fiber, but some dispersion can be removed through the use of a 'dispersion compensator' which uses a special length of fiber that has opposite dispersion to that induced by the transmission fiber and thus sharpens the pulse for decoding at the receiver for Condensers.
Another important factor is the launched power of the resulting optical signal. It is an important design parameter because it determines how much fiber loss can be tolerated.
There are many other factors which can affect the performance of an optical transmitter. Some of them are DAC bandwidth limitations, transmitter I/Q skew and non-linear effects caused by gain saturation in the driver amplifier and Mach-Zehnder modulator.
There are also other devices that help to improve the accuracy of the meter. For instance PD meter accessories are available in a variety of models and sizes. They can include strainers, filters, air/vapor release assemblies, pulsation dampeners and temperature compensations. They can be manufactured in bronze, plastic and other materials to meet the needs of the application.
5. Laser Sensor
The Laser Sensor is a key technology that helps provide a high level of accuracy for Casting Water Meter. It is a non-contact laser flow measurement technology that can penetrate the water to measure velocity at single or multiple points below the surface. This technology can be used in challenging environments such as high temperature, low flow rates, high pressure, water vibration and acoustic noise.
This technology provides accurate flow data without affecting the gas composition or thermal conductivity of the gas. It can also be used in extreme conditions where other flow sensors cannot work.
In an automotive casting operation in the USA, a major auto manufacturer uses Dimetix laser distance sensors with Spiral Cooker to measure the level of liquefied aluminum vats. The lasers are mounted in protective enclosures that are above and at an angle to the liquefied aluminum.
These sensors provide accurate size and position measurements of the liquefied aluminum, which are then processed with a process meter to provide level control alarms. This system is a great example of how a laser-based measurement can be used to meet a wide range of metals manufacturing needs.
The laser sensor is a key technology that helps provide incredibly accurate flow measurements, even in challenging conditions such as high temperature, low flow rates, and high pressure. It can be used in extreme conditions where other flow sensors are not able to work.
The water meter and leak detection system collects information from the water flow sensor and transmits it to a remote display and/or recording apparatus using one of several wireless communication means, such as Bluetooth, Bluetooth Low Energy, Wi-Fi, WiFi3, Zigbee, Z-Wave, LoRa, Sigfox, Ultra Narrow Band (UNB), WiMAX, 6LoWPAN or cellular. The water meter and leak detection system can send this information at various intervals, such as once per minute, once per hour, once per day, or can send information upon sensing the initiation of water use, e.g. a water event basis, to a programmed cell or phone number.