Your Main Guide to Vulnerability Assessment and Its Many Types

Vulnerability assessments are used to define, detect, categorize, and prioritize defects and vulnerabilities in applications, devices, and networks that might expose organizations' products, services, code, and applications to attack.

Security flaws allow malicious actors to exploit an organization's apps and systems. Comprehensive vulnerability assessments based on key CVE vulnerability details, when combined with a risk management strategy, are a crucial component of an organization's security management.

A thorough assessment method includes determining the amount of risk that different vulnerabilities provide to an organization. Most of the time, this strategy necessitates the employment of mechanized devices such as security scanners. The results of these testing and scanning technologies should be documented in the vulnerability assessment reports.

What Is a Vulnerability Assessment?

Testing for vulnerabilities may take several forms. One method is to test the security of dynamic apps. DAST is a procedure that involves implementing an application (typically a Web site). DAST is performed specifically to find security problems by delivering inputs or other failure scenarios to expose weaknesses in real-time. SAST, on the other hand, refers to the technique of analyzing an application's source code or object code to uncover vulnerabilities without actually running the program.

The two strategies approach the application process in fundamentally different ways. They are most beneficial at various phases of the software development life cycle (SDLC) and reveal numerous problems in the product. SAST, for example, may detect important vulnerabilities such as cross-site scripting (XSS) and SQL injection early in the software development life cycle. DAST, on the other hand, employs a technique known as outside-in penetration testing to identify security weaknesses in running Web applications.


Types of Vulnerability Assessments

A vulnerability assessment, in its most basic form, utilizes several methodologies, tools, and scanners to uncover possible blind spots, hazards, and threats. Everything is dependent on how precisely the flaws in the present systems are recognized to meet that specific requirement. The following are some examples of vulnerability assessment scans:

  • Network

Scanners for network vulnerabilities examine both wired and wireless networks to find potential vulnerabilities and risks to network security. They hunt for devices and systems on the network that are unknown or unauthorized and offer information on unknown perimeter points, such as unlawful remote access and unsecured network connections.

  • Host

This type of assessment not only looks for security flaws in servers, workstations, and other network hosts, but it also tells you how the devices are set up and when they were last updated. It can be used to find out about many of the threats and problems that could happen if someone from the outside got into your network.

  • Application

Application scans may uncover flaws in the security mechanisms of web-based programs. Companies may use this kind of assessment to evaluate the source code of any programs placed on their separate websites. It may help businesses maintain their software programs and resolve any flaws that are discovered.

  • Database

These assessments seek out vulnerabilities, misconfigurations, and other gaps in functionality or security in databases or other data-management systems. By performing database assessments, an organization may be able to detect rogue data, also known as erroneous, incomplete, or inconsistent data, inside its systems. Moreover, this kind of vulnerability assessment may enable businesses to organize and categorize their data based on the number of risks it presents.

  • Wireless Network

An assessment of an organization's wireless networks could show what kinds of vulnerabilities they have. Previously, wireless networks relied on insufficient and weak data encryption technologies. Despite advancements in wireless network standards, many networks continue to use inadequate and outmoded security measures, leaving them open to cyber-attacks. Wireless networks are tested during this kind of assessment, and the search is undertaken for "rogue" wireless networks that may exist inside an organization's limits. These scans are performed at customer-specified sites that contain a wireless network. They monitor wireless network traffic and try to decrypt encryption secrets.


To sum up, assessment of vulnerabilities should be a fundamental component of any security effort. While performing a vulnerability assessment, one may choose from a wide variety of approaches; nevertheless, the aspect that is of the utmost importance is making certain that the approach used is suitable for the company as well as the assets that are being evaluated.

Therefore, it's important to have a good understanding of your company's digital infrastructure so you can figure out which of the many types of vulnerabilities related to scanning are the most important. 

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